Test yourself, see if you can figure out how the new s60 Pedestrian Detection System works (10 question quiz).
1. According to research, 50 percent of fatal pedestrian accidents occur at what speeds?
A) Above 51 mph (82 kph)
B) Above 26 mph (42 kph)
C) Below 26 mph (42 kph)
D) Below 16 mph (26 kph)
2. Is pedestrian Detection with full Auto Brake effective when backing up (reversing)?
A) Yes – in all situations.
B) Yes – if the driver programs it to do so and activates it properly.
C) It depends on the angle of the tires.
D) No! It’s effective for pedestrians in front of the vehicle only.
3. What is the key benefit of Volvo’s world – first Pedestrian Detection with full Auto Brake?
A) It prevents pedestrian accidents and significantly reduces the impact of pedestrian accidents that are unavoidable.
B) It helps support drivers who are tired and distracted by warning pedestrians that the vehicle is approaching.
C) It prevents accidents with small vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians.
D) It works with Adaptive Cruise Control with Queue assist to monitor driving and traffic conditions.
4. If the driver does not respond to the initial warning, what does Pedestrian Detection with Full Auto Brake do next?
A) Increases to a secondary level of audible alert.
B) Gently applies the brakes to draw the driver’s attention.
C) Applies the brakes with full force.
D) There is no further warning – there is only one stage of alert.
5. What weather conditions can affect the performance of Pedestrian Detection with Full Auto Brake?
D) all the above
6. What is the field of view for the feature?
A) 30 degrees
B) 60 degrees
C) 90 degrees
D) 180 degrees
7. What can distort the shape of a pedestrian so that the camera does not recognize them as a person?
A) Brightly colored clothing
C) Wearing a Clown or Mascot costume
D) Walking too close to other pedestrians
8. How tall must an object be to be recognized by the Pedestrian Detection feature?
A) 20 inches (51 cm)
B) 32 inches (80 cm)
C) 40 inches (102 cm)
D) 52 inches (132 cm)
9. According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, how many pedestrians are injured in the United States each year?
10. Where does research show that pedestrians deaths primarily occur?
A) Remote country roads without sidewalks or crosswalks
B) Urban areas with crosswalks, sidewalks, median strips, and traffic islands
C) Suburban neighborhoods with children who are unsupervised
D) Expressways where cars are stopped during emergencies
Answers can be found in psychic s60 Volvo article
I am not kidding, the new s60 is psychic.
The new sporty s60 can sense an accident well in advance and avoid it.
I can’t help feeling that if the driver of the vehicle that fatally hit a pedestrian in Bethesda, last Thursday afternoon had been driving the new s60, the ensuing traffic might have been avoided.
No snarled up traffic, and no life lost.
Pedestrian Detection System (PDS) with Full auto Brake, is worth its weight in gold.
About the new sporty s60
This is what Warren Brown, a motoring enthusiast and Washington Post Newspaper columnist had to say in his recent article. “The car braked suddenly. I thanked God there was no car following me (a possible hazard with the pedestrian-detection system). The pedestrian continued moving, blessedly unaware of how close he came to being sent back to the doctor’s office, or to a hospital bed.”
Before I explain how this technology works, I will share some important statistics from the Insurance Institute for highway safety.
According to IIHS, 4,092 pedestrians were killed in motor vehicle crashes in the United States. This accounted for 12% of overall crash fatalities in the U.S.
Most pedestrian deaths occur in urban areas at: crosswalks, sidewalks, median strips and traffic islands.
50% of these fatal crashes occur at speeds of less than 16 MPH.
95% of the pedestrians are struck by the front of the vehicle.
A common crash scenario involves a person crossing the road and a vehicle going straight with nothing obstructing the view of the driver from seeing the pedestrian, with no evidence of braking.
The new Volvo pedestrian detection technology can sense pedestrians, and if the driver does not initiate braking in time, the car automatically applies full braking force (Pedestrian Detection System with Full Auto Brake). Pedestrian Detection System (PDS) specializes in avoiding collisions at low speeds, up to 22 mph or 35 kph. At higher speeds the car will slow down, enough to reduce the chances of a fatality by 85%.
According to the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety, 70,000 pedestrians are injured in the United States each year; research estimates that PDS prevents an additional 39,000 crashes including 2932 fatalities.
You can think of PDS as an extra set of eyes and an extra foot above the brake pedal. A forward collision warning system that applies brakes automatically when the driver fails to react.
How It Works
The PDS uses a combination of radar (located on front end of vehicle) and camera attached to the back of the rear view mirror. This combination can identify a human figure within a 60 degree field of view. The radar detects a shape or object in front of the vehicle and measures the distance to impact. The camera determines what type of object it is, and a sensor device reads contours lines of a human being.
The driver is alerted by sound and a flashing brake light shape appears on the windshield, simulating the rear end of a vehicle ahead. If the driver fails to respond to the warning sound and lights then full auto brake is engaged, a split second before impact, when it is too late to swerve.
Benefits to customer
Helps avoid injury or death to the pedestrian.
Prevents accidents or reduces impact if vehicle is traveling too fast.
The radar and camera have a limited field of view, 60 degrees. In addition, dirt on windshield can and will affect the view of the camera.
PDS is affected by rain, snow, road spray, or low sun. (This means that it does not work at night) Function of the system cannot be guranteed.
The driver is ultimately responsible for maintaining a safe speed and distance. The human body being detected has to be at least 32 inches or 80 centimeters tall. This means that a child cannot be detected and neither can a wheel chair bound person.
Body shapes can be distorted by baggy clothes, bags or costumes. Therefore, the camera and sensor cannot detect a human shape.
The brakes once engaged can only hold for only 1.5 seconds before the vehicle starts to move again.
Slippery wet surfaces will negate the system.
Other Volvo Safety Features
This technology when used with other safety volvo features can enhance and avoid potential accidents:
- Blind Spot Sensor(BLIS) which is a little camera on your side mirror
- Lane departure warning
- Adaptive headlight
Conclusion: Volvo is ahead of the race with this technology; however, Audi is working on a system that works at night and does not require expensive radar technology. Subaru is also working on a cheaper PDS system that can detect cyclists, and other luxury brands like BMW are not far behind.
So, I see this technology as being a standard in the near future instead of just an option.
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety
“If only she had done some due diligence”, I thought to my self.
I was heart wrenched early one morning at the service center to see a young well dressed African American lady crying like a baby. She had recently purchased a used Volvo that had now turned out to be the worst investment of her life, the car was a piece of @#$%.
The following tips will help you make a well educated decision if you are in the market for a used car:
- Get the service history for the vehicle. The dealership will not only print you a copy of the service records for the vehicle, but they will also fax it to you on request (or ask the previous car owner for a copy).
- Get a car-fax report. Make sure you are not buying a lemon or a car that was in a major accident. Get the Vin number and run a report immediately and discover if any major repairs have been done. Sometimes the seller will sell the vehicle before a major service, for example the timing belt & water pump which costs about $1900. Car-Fax will run a FREE lemon check, Record Check, Recall Check, problem Car Check, Sample Reports and Vin History. I have used car-fax for all my previous used cars.
- Lemon Law. Know your lemon law statutes for new and used cars.
- Get a car diagnostics if possible. This will pull up potential problem codes just in case the seller has masked a check engine light by unplugging the dash bulb.
- Protect yourself from Odometer fraud. Mileage on a used car is a big factor in determining its resale value, so make sure you research the history of the car and obtain a vehicle history report. Repair shops write down the mileage at different service intervals, so you can easily compare past readings to the present odometer reading.
- Lastly, get a top to bottom car inspection. Our dealership will charge one labor hour or $112 to conduct a thorough inspection of your vehicle. This way, you are guaranteed that you are not throwing good money after a bad.
Failing emissions testing is an opportunity to save money because you just discovered that your car is wasting fuel.
City driving not only adversely affects your car but your health too. This is because high levels of harmful car emissions like Carbon Monoxide, Nitrous Oxides and Hydrocarbons can lead to failed emission testing.
Here are some interesting car emission facts you might want to know.
I recently read an article stating that the European Union (EU) is considering phasing out the petrol (gasoline) engine in favor of mass transit to cut down on harmful car emissions.
Engine Combustion for a healthy vehicle (Normal Running):
Under normal conditions, a controlled mixture of fuel and air is combusted in the car engine for maximum fuel efficiency.
Fuel will react with the Oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water vapor.
Hydrocarbon Fuel + Oxygen =CO2 + H2O+ N2 (simplified equation for complete combustion)
This process, known as complete combustion happens under ideal conditions of Air to Fuel Mixture Ratios (AFR).
This ideal ratio of fuel to air is known as the stoichiometric ratio and is about 14.7:1 (14.7 pounds of air is burned for every pound of fuel). No more and no less.
This ratio describes the ideal thermo chemical process, where all of the air and all of the fuel is consumed during the combustion cycle, leaving no residual exhaust by-products. Nitrogen which is 79% of air passes through the combustion process virtually unchanged.
The benefits of a healthy vehicle:
The vehicle runs more efficiently and wastes less fuel; therefore, saving you hundreds in gas dollars
Engine Combustion for an unhealthy vehicle:
Your car will fail emissions testing because incomplete combustion or partial combustion is taking place and producing harmful car emissions.
Two main causes of emissions are;
- The Air Fuel Ratio (14.7:1) is less than the ideal stoichiometric ratio necessary for complete combustion to take place. Excess fuel in the mixture means that there is not enough oxygen to react with extra fuel for complete combust to take place. In this case, the maximum output of heat cannot be attained and you will experience poor mileage. This is commonly known as running a Rich Mixture. A Rich Mixture is responsible for high emissions of Carbon Monoxide (CO).
- The Air Fuel Ratio (14.7:1) is greater than stoichiometric ratio and this means that there is too much air or oxygen in the mixture. Too little fuel and excess air produce greater than ideal temperature that binds oxygen molecules to nitrogen to form nitrous oxides. This is commonly known as running a Lean Mixture. A Lean Mixture is responsible for high emissions of Nitrous Oxides (NOx).
- Carbon Monoxide(CO)
- Nitrous Oxides(NOx)
High Hydrocarbons (HC)
High HC is caused by excess raw fuel in the AFR (Rich Mixture). Some of this raw fuel is unburned which leads to the production of carbon monoxide (CO).
Six common failures likely to lead to a high output of Hydrocarbons are:
- Faulty Ignition Timing
- Faulty Ignition components
- A Lean Misfire
- Faulty Catalytic Converter
- Faulty Air Injection Components
- Low Cylinder Compression
High Carbon Monoxide (CO)
High CO is typical in Rich Mixtures because of excess fuel and little air (oxygen). Less than ideal AFR leads to partial combustion. Carbon (soot) and CO is produced in this reaction.
Five faults likely to produce high carbon monoxide are:
- Dirty Air Filter
- Faulty Oxygen Sensors (O2 Sensors)
- Faulty Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP Sensor)
- Faulty Throttle Position Sensor (TPS)
- Faulty Engine Coolant Temperature (ECT Sensor)
High Nitrous Oxides (NOx)
High Nitrous Oxides emissions are due to a Lean Mixture (too much air or oxygen in the mixture), greater than ideal AFR.
This condition occurs when the lean fuel is completely burned off; some oxygen is left over in the reaction process.
The heat produced is greater than normal and Nitrogen combines with left over oxygen to produce nitrous oxides (toxic emission).
In a normally running engine, Nitrogen passes through the engine unchanged, but not in this case.
Five common failures leading to high NOx emissions are;
- Lean Fuel Mix
- Faulty Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) System
- Faulty Catalytic Converter (CAT)
- High Engine Mileage (Carbon build up)
- Engine Overheating
Failing Emissions Testing is good news for your wallet because it means your vehicle is wasting fuel. So, visit your service center and get the problem resolved and save money in the long run.
When you start up your car, all the warning lights should come on and then go off when the engine is running as it should.
However, when a warning light comes on and stays on; you know right away that something is not working right.
Another name for the check engine light is the Malfunction Indicator lamp (MIL). The Malfunction Indicator Lamp (MIL) must light up when a catalytic converter allows hydrocarbon (HC) emissions to increase greater than 1.5 times the level allowed by Federal Test Procedure (FTP) standards.
Three reasons for failing emissions are;
- High Hydrocarbons (HC),
- High Carbon Monoxide (CO)
- High Nitrous Oxide (NO).
This means that your car’s engine is not running efficiently. Your vehicle may either be runing too rich or too lean, and you may experience poor gas milage (MPG). This is due to incomplete combustion in the engine; the engine requires 14.7:1 air/fuel ratio for optimum fuel combustion.
So, unless you fix the problem you will not only fail emissions, but also loose money at the gas pump.
History of the check engine light
In 1996, The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) with the recommendation of Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE), mandated that all vehicles from hence forth were required to upgrade to the On-Board Diagnosis 2 (OBD II) system.
OBD II System
To protect the environment and bring vehicle emissions under control, a sophisticated electronic control system know as the OBD II system was developed. The OBD II diagnostic system continously or non continously monitors all engine and transmission sensors and actuators that run diagnostic tests on the emissions related systems.
Continous monitoring systems includes;
- Misfire detection
- Fuel trim
- Comprehensive component monitors (detects a failure when your emissions exceed a certain limit that triggers a Diagnotic Trouble Code (DTC), which in turn illuminates the Malfunction Indicator lamp (MIL) or check engine light, and lastly this code is stored in the computer.)
Non continous monitering is performed once per trip on the following emission systems;
- Catalyst and heated catalyst
- Oxygen sensor and oxygen sensor heaters
- Evaporative emissions (EVAP)
- Secondary air
- The Exhaust Gas Recirculation System (EGR System)
When the OBD II system detects a problem or a fault it triggers a daignostics trouble code or DTC.
All OBD II Diagnostic Trouble Codes are universal, meaning that these are generic and any technician including independent shops can read these codes by means of a scan tool. (Dealerships use diagnostic computers for Manufacturer specific DTC’s)
An example of a generic DTC is P0060 – heated oxgen sensor heater resistance (bank 2 sensor2)
- The first character, a letter that denotes – the system where the code was set
- The second character is a number – reveals whether it is an SAE or a manufacture defined code
- The last three characters, all numbers – describe the type of malfunction
Some states are considering an advanced OBD system that would allow them to do away with emissions testing.
For example, if the “check engine” light came on, the system would automatically send a email to state officials, who would in turn contact polluting motorists to have the problem corrected within a reasonable time period.
Driver errors that can trigger a check engine light:
- A loose gas cap on a Volvo can trigger a check engine light
- A tank of bad gas
- Filling the tank while the engine is running
- Disconnected vaccum hose
A check engine light lets you know that you are loosing money at the gas pump because your engine may be running too rich or too lean.
Amber check engine light means it is safe to drive if you have not noticed any symptoms, but have it checked out as soon as possible at the dealership.
Red check engine light, pull off to the side of the road when it is safe to do so and come to a complete stop.
Well, that was before some strange lights started flickering on my instrument cluster. I did not know much about cars back then. So my well sanitized reaction was, Oh No!
The check engine light was the worst offender. Each time I saw that light come on, my heart rate went up, I felt my blood pressure begin to rise, and my cholesterol levels went from good to evil.
Your check engine light or MIL (Malfunction Indicator Lamp) means that a fault has been detected in your engine control system. This fault will trigger a DTC (Diagnostic Trouble Code).
Some faults are intermittent and will make the lamp go on while the fault is occurring, and when it goes away the lamp goes off. Most faults that trigger the check engine light tend to stay on until a diagnostics has been done and the problem fixed.
Sometimes, all you need is to tighten up on a loose gas cap for the check engine light to go off.
Most times, I get calls from customers and they want to know why the check engine light is on. My answer is always, “I don’t know”. You need to make an appointment and come in for a diagnostic as soon as as possible if it’s an amber light, but if it is a red light, then pull over when it’s safe to do so and come to a complete stop.
There are over 5000 OBD II fault codes in a modern vehicle. However, the check engine light is reserved only for the Powertrain On-Board diagnosis problems that can cause you to fail emissions. The powertrain consists of 999 different generic OBD II Diagnostic Trouble Codes.
We currently charge $112 for a diagnostic, and yes we are competitive, you can shop around, but all dealers charge about the same.If you choose to have the problem fixed the diagnostic fee may be waived. We want your business.
The gas station down the street will probably charge you $80 and use a $150 scan tool to read the codes. After they hack your Volvo and can’t figure out how to fix it, they will have the car towed to the dealership, so we can fix their mess. It happens every day, last week it was New Concept Auto.
So why us, you may ask?
Because we have the latest technology and current software updates from Volvo USA. Our Codes are Volvo specific and not the generic off the shelf scan tool codes used by independent shops. Our Technicians are Volvo trained specialists; they work on the same type of vehicles everyday.
Please don’t get hacked, get the job done right the first time.
If you don’t agree with me, please let me know in the comments section below.
For all you early adopters, the new Volvo C30 all electric car will hit showrooms early next year. Unfortunately only 100 vehicles will be available in the U.S market and 250 in Sweden as they work out the bugs.
For an environmentally conscious vehicle manufacturer like Volvo, I am surprised that it has taken this long to develop a green vehicle. Take a sneak peek at the new electric Volvo C30.
Due to the rapidly rising cost of gas at the pumps, it’s important that we know how to calculate miles per gallon for our vehicles. This will save you gas money if can drive longer on the same tank of gas.
How to calculate MPG:
- Fill your gas tank to full and drive as you normally do.
- Note down how many gallons it takes to fill your tank.
- Note down the starting mileage on the main odometer.
- Reset your Volvo trip odometer to zero.
- Drive your car until the gas gauge lights up and it’s time to refuel and note the ending mileage.
MPG = MILES/GALLONS
If your car does not have a trip odometer you can take the difference between ending mileage and starting mileage dived by gallons of fuel.
(ENDING MILEAGE – STARTING MILEAGE) /GALLONS = MPG
You can take the initial MPG as the base line and repeat the process, but this time drive in a fuel efficient way and see if you can improve on your MPG and save money.
Use this Calculator to see how much money you can save annually.
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By following these four cardinal rules religiously, you are bound to save money at the gas pump.
The cardinal rules of saving money on gas are:
- Cultivate fuel efficient driving habits.
- Car maintenance ( tune up).
- Fuel efficient Tires.
- Low viscosity oils.
Fuel efficient driving
The trick here is to drive smoothly.
Personally, I often try to avoid aggressive driving but I am not always successful.
This is because when I am running late all my smart driving rules get tossed out the window. I am human after all.
Studies have been done on driving habits and at lower speeds, it has been proven that aggressive driving leads to a 6% reduction in fuel economy.
While at higher speeds, typically on the express way an average vehicle going over the speed limit will experience a 33% reduction in fuel economy.
Surprisingly, for powerful vehicles (here I am assuming V8 engines), experience less % penalties in fuel economy. For example, at high speeds smaller vehicles are loosing 33% in fuel economy vs 28% for powerful vehicles.
Car maintenance (tune up)
It’s time for a tune up when you start noticing the following symptoms:
- A decrease in gas mileage.
- Hesitation on acceleration, or noticeable loss of power.
- Rough idling or stalling when at a stop.
- Your engine is knocking when accelerating because your car is running a rich mixture. Low octane fuel can cause knocking or pinging.
- Your check engine light is on. A defective oxygen sensor could be the reason your check engine light is on. Note that for Volvo’s a loose gas cap can also trigger a check engine light
Fuel efficient tires
You may be surprised to learn that tires can contribute up to a total of 30% savings in fuel consumption when you factor in the rolling resistance of tires that is often not disclosed by tire manufacturers.
Tire design directly contributes to fuel economy when you factor in the forces required to overcome mass due to loss of inertia (force required to overcome a body at rest), aerodynamic drag force ( the tire profile that cuts through air resistance with minimum drag or friction), and rolling resistance due to tire-road friction and how the flexing of tire transmits frictional heat to various elastic component of the tire.
How tire pressure affects fuel economy
The U.S Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHSTA) conducted a survey in August of 2001. The survey was conducted at gas stations around the country. The collected data on 11,530 passenger vehicles showed that many tires on passenger vehicles are under inflated.
From the survey findings, it was concluded that more than one in four of the passenger cars with p-metric tires had at least one tire under-inflated by 8 psi (pressure per square inch) or more.
According to the survey, an 8 psi under-inflation in one tire resulted in a 3.3% decrease in miles per gallon MPG. So, it would be wise to check your tire pressure regularly to ensure all your tires properly inflated.
Low Viscosity oils
On every container of motor oil there are three pieces of information:
- The API service rating.
- SAE(Society of Automotive Engineers) Viscosity grade.
- ‘Energy conservation’ indicator. The API ‘starburst’ quality symbol indicates fuel economy and energy conserving properties of the oil.
The API (American petroleum Institute)or ‘starburst’ symbol is a mark of quality that helps consumers identify quality engine oils for their gasoline or diesel-powered engines.
Viscosity grade tells you about the thickness of oil. For example, 5W-30.
The first number, 5 (five degrees celsius) indicates how quickly an engine will crank in winter and how well the oil will flow to lubricate crtical engine parts at low temperatures.
The lower the number the more easier it is to crank at low temperatures or cold weather. W – is the weight of the oil and the second number 30 (thirty degrees celsius) stands for temperature of oil at normal operating temperature.
Viscosity can be defined as the resistance to flow. Highly viscous Mineral oil is thick at low temperatures, but at higher temperatures the oil thins out and starts to flow.
The thicker the oil the harder the engine has to work to circulate the oil and lubricate the component parts especially in the morning when it’s cold outside.
Low viscosity oils (severely refined mineral oil or synthetic oil) are easy on the engine as they retain fluidity at very low temperatures.
Engine oil has several functions:
- Reduces frictional heat between the moving parts of the engine (The less the friction the higher your gas savings).
- Remove heat from the engine to the cooling system.
- Keeps the engine clean. Oil acts as a solvent for contaminants and also suspends small particles that are eventually trapped by the oil filter.
- Protects against corrosion.
- Creates a seal between the pistons and the cylinder walls to prevent combustion by-products like sulfur from getting through to contaminate clean oil. This is why you should change your oil frequently, to get rid of dirty and contaminated oil.
Thus, low viscosity oil does a better job of dissipating frictional heat. This will result in fuel economy because the engine is doing less work.
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Several days ago, a new Volvo owner called the service center with an interesting question.
The new Volvo owner had recently purchased a brand new Volvo C30, an upscale hatch back from our dealership. He wanted to know why he was not getting 21 mpg for city driving as listed in the owners manual.
The Volvo C30 is fun to drive, especially the sporty R-Design. On occasion I have pulled around the orange R-Design C30 loaner car for our customers and I love the way it handles. The little car has a zip to it unlike any other Volvo I have driven, probably because it has a 2.5-liter turbocharged 5-cylinder engine that produces 227 horsepower. The car easily hits 60 mph (miles per hour) in a respectable 7 seconds flat and averages 22 mpg (miles per gallon) on regular gas.
Volvo engines are designed for optimum performance on unleaded premium gasoline. So, if you read your owners manual you will note that an AKI (Anti Knock Index) octane rating of 91 or above is recommended.
Regular gas – 87 octane fuel is okay because the Volvo engines are strong and will re-adjust the timing sequence to accommodate the cheaper gas. However, you will note that the performance of the vehicle will go down.
When you switch to 89 octane fuel you will observe a smoother ride and an increase in horse power. The R-Design is a peak performance vehicle that responds well to higher octane gas.
Therefore, if you are going to invest good money into one of these sporty vehicles you might as well spend a little extra money on gas.
For the new Volvo owner we mentioned several factors that could have lowered his MPG to 16 mile per gallon instead of 21 mpg for city driving.
Factors affecting MPG for new vehicles:
- Engine Break-In. A new Volvo engine has to be broken-in in order to perform at optimum or peak performance. This means you have to have at least 5,000 to 10,000 miles on the vehicle for the engine to loosen up and obtain optimal fuel economy.
- How you drive; Quick acceleration and hard braking will affect your fuel economy. According to new EPA tests, aggressive driving can reduce fuel economy by up to 33 percent on the highway and 5 percent around town.
- Excessive idling. Zero miles per gallon; idling will lower your average MPG.
- Frequent short trips. Short trips of 10 miles or less will affect your fuel economy because the engine does not reach optimum operating temperatures.
- Cold weather. Your car needs to warm up in order to operate like it was designed to. Please note that idling your car in the drive way is not the right way to warm up a modern car engine. Idling only increase fuel consumption and pollution. Drive your car gently below 3000 rpm to warm it up.
- Cargo, towing and junk in the trunk only increase drag and reduces fuel economy.
- Electrical accessories. Air conditioning (A/C) requires gas to run the compressor. Operating the A/C on ‘max’ can reduce MPG by between 5-25%.
- EPA recommends using cheaper regular gas for fuel economy but a motorweek magazine road test for a Volvo C30 achieved an average of 22 mpg. To obtain higher MPG Volvo recommends higher octane fuel (gasoline containing deposit control additives). These additives have shown to be effective in keeping injectors and intake valves clean. Thus, consistent use of deposit control gasoline helps ensure good smooth handling and fuel economy.
- New vehicle variation. New cars fresh off the assembly line have slight variations that will give a marked deviation in MPG.
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